This is the most common procedure. A thin flexible tube with a camera is inserted in the mouth to see the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine. The test is used to evaluate for acid reflux, ulcers, eosinophilic esophagitis, celiac disease, poor growth, and inflammatory bowel disease. Small pieces of tissue, about the size of a pinhead, are usually taken for testing. This test is done with general anesthesia, usually as an outpatient.
A flexible tube with a camera is used to look into the last part of the intestines (colon and terminal ileum). The test helps to evaluate polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, and other causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Small tissue samples, the size of a pinhead, are taken. Polyps, which are growths of tissue lining the intestines, may also be removed. The test is done with general anesthesia, usually as an outpatient.
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy
A thin needle is inserted through the skin into the liver to obtain a small sample of tissue from the liver. Liver biopsies may be needed to evaluate jaundice (yellowing of the skin), abnormal liver function tests, or an enlarged liver. This test is done with light sedation or general anesthesia, and may require overnight observation.
Esophageal pH Probe
This is a 24-hour test to measure the frequency that acid in the stomach goes up into the esophagus. It is used to determine the effectiveness of antacids, to determine severity of gastroesophageal reflux, and to find out if certain symptoms such as cough, choking, or hoarse voice are related to gastroesophageal reflux. Most patients may complete the test at home after the probe is placed. They return the next day to have the probe removed.
Combined Impedance pH Probe
This test measures how frequently acid and nonacid stomach contents go up into the esophagus. It can also show how high up refluxed stomach contents may go. It can also help show if certain symptoms such as cough, choking, or hoarse voice are related to gastroesophageal reflux. Most patients may complete the test at home after the probe is placed. They return the next day to have the probe removed.
Hydrogen and methane in exhaled breath are measured to evaluate for lactose intolerance, intolerance of other sugars, or for intestinal bacterial overgrowth. It helps evaluate persons with bloating, diarrhea, or stomach pain.
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG)
Children who cannot take enough calories by mouth or who have special nutritional needs may require a feeding tube. A PEG is one way to place a feeding tube from the skin into the stomach.